Where There’s Smoke…

There’s Fire!

This is what the skies over the Coachella Valley Preserve looked like Saturday, August 1st, in the late afternoon.

Dubbed the Apple Fire, dry conditions and triple digit temperatures became the ideal conditions for a small vegetation fire to burn out of control. The fire began Friday, July 31st, in the late afternoon. It doubled in size from 1,900 acres on Saturday morning to 4,125 acres by 3 p.m. and by 11:00 p.m. 12,000 acres, or more than 18 square miles, were on fire with 0% containment. (ktla.com)

ktla.com

google maps, Apple Fire

The cause at this time was still undetermined. An ignition spark from a car, a trailer dragging a chain, and arson were all being investigated. Later I read that witnesses called 911 on Friday afternoon to report seeing a man lighting 3 fires in the area.

Here are some pictures from news footage I gathered online:

courtesy of Terry Pierson

CBS News

CBS News

KESQ News, Channel 3

KESQ News, Channel 3

According to an article published in the Desert Sun, a Palm Springs newspaper, the Apple Fire started as at least 2 small fires shortly after 5 p.m. Friday in a community known as  Cherry Valley, a few miles from Beaumont, CA.

Here are some more pictures taken outside of the RV…


Sunday, August 2nd…

I took these pictures in the early afternoon as we headed toward Ramon Road from Thousand Palms Canyon Road.

And from the online news later in the day, I learned the fire continued to grow, scorching some 20,000 acres so far and forcing 7,800 people to evacuate. It is only 5% contained as of today.

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CBSN, Los Angeles

CNN, Alta Spells


Monday, August 3rd…

A news update from Cal Fire and Riverside County Fire Departments reported that 26,000 acres have burned so far. The official cause of the Apple Fire is determined to be a malfunctioning vehicle shooting out “hot objects” from its tailpipe. (CBSN, Los Angeles)


Wednesday, August 5th…

As Jeff and I returned from a day trip to Green Valley Lake outside of Big Bear, we cut over from CA-247 and took Pioneertown Road back to CA-62.

We noticed an intermittent scattering of parked fire vehicles and hiking fire persons along the route. As we descended from Yucca Valley into the Morongo Valley we were met with murky skies…


Friday, August 7th…

As we drove toward Palm Springs on Ramon Road, we could still see clouds of smoke from the Apple Fire.


Friday, August 14th…

With 90% of the Apple Fire now contained, the command of the fire has been transferred from Cal Fire to a local team led by Incident Commander Matt Ahearn of the San Bernardino National Forest. Suppression repair efforts will continue for several weeks. Rehabilitation includes mopping up along the fire line and repairing impacts on the landscape.

Fortunately no one died as a result of this fire, but 4 people were injured and 4 structures were damaged. (fire.ca.gov)


On August 16th lightning ignited a new fire in the San Francisco Bay Area, named the CSU Lightning Complex Fire, CSU being the geographical code  used by Cal Fire to designate the Santa Cruz Unit.

google maps


The very next day, August 17th, another fire started burning out of control near Sacramento, CA. The Sonoma-Lake-Napa Unit (LNU) fire was also the result of lightning.

google maps


Then, on Saturday morning, September 5th, a pyrotechnic device used during a gender reveal party sparked a fire at the El Dorado Ranch Park in Yucaipa.

Here’s an example of such a device:

cnn.com

And here’s a map of where the fire is burning:

google maps

You’re right for noticing that the area looks familiar. It is not far from the Apple Fire from the beginning of  August…


On Sunday, September 6th, we noticed a dark cloud billowing from the Little San Bernardino Mountains over Joshua Tree National Park. Smoke clouds… On Monday the air was gray and dingy and smelled like a campfire.


Tuesday, September 8th, Jeff and I pulled tamarisk seedlings from the stream. I took some pictures of the sky. The mountains had disappeared.


To date, California is burning up!

google maps

The overcast skies and smell of smoke surrounding us on the Coachella Valley Preserve is nothing compared to the orange skies in San Francisco and the terrorizing drives evacuating residents are documenting as they flee from fire zones!

All My Critters… Part 3

Great and Small on the Preserve

the american white pelican

Sometimes, but not always in a V-formation, a flock of black wings appears overhead in winter. Then suddenly, as they turn, white wings flash through the sunlight.

These wings belong to the American White Pelican, one of the largest birds in North America. These pelicans rarely winter inland, however the Salton Sea* (in Southern California) is an exception. They often travel and forage in large flocks. They soar gracefully on broad, stable, black and white wings, high in the sky between thermals of warm air. (allaboutbirds.org)   *The Salton Sea is about 50 miles southeast of the Coachella Valley Preserve.

en.m.wikipedia.org

According to an April 26, 2019 article published online at nbcpalmsprings.com, many bird species, once abundant around the Salton Sea, are rapidly leaving. As the water increasingly evaporates, salinity increases and kills off the fish  upon which the seabirds thrive. The most pronounced desertion involves the American White Pelican, whose numbers reached about 20,000 in 2008, but, at the time this article was written, have dwindled dramatically to below 100.

The story of the Salton Sea, could be appropriately titled, “From Paradise to Purgatory”. What’s strange about this accidental tale of how an inland sea became the largest lake in California, is the fact that it is located in the middle of the Colorado Desert, the hottest portion of the Sonoran Desert. In 1905 the  Colorado River swelled, breached its levees, and flooded a portion of the desert valley known as the Salton Sink. For 2 years the water continued flowing in, creating a 15 x 35 mile lake dubbed the Salton Sea. Shorebirds flocked here, fish thrived, real estate developers built homes, hotels, yacht clubs… creating a tourist mecca along its shores. By the 1970s, however, what was too good to be true began rapidly falling apart. With no drainage outlet, 5 inches or less of annual rainfall, and runoff flowing in from nearby farms, the Salton Sea became polluted with pesticides and saltier than the Pacific Ocean. Periodic flooding pushed the toxic water further ashore. Depleted oxygen in the Sea killed fish, dragging their rotting bodies onto the beaches once lined with sunbathers, to shrivel in the hot sun. The sand became coated with layers of fragmented fish skeletons. (slate.com)

allthatisinteresting.com

atlasobscura.com

americansouthwest.net

atlasobscura.com

atlasobscura.com

(Check out my post Seeing is Believing to learn more about our visit to the Salton Sea in 2018.)

But let’s get back to the American White Pelican…

allaboutbirds.org, courtesy of Gordon Dimmig, MacCaulay Library

The American White Pelican dips its pouched bill to scoop up fish, then raises its head to drain out water and swallow its prey, unlike the brown pelican that dives upon its  meal from above. These pelicans also forage cooperatively. Groups of birds dip their bills and flap their wings, driving fish toward shore corralling them for synchronized bill-dipping feasts.

Females lay 2 eggs but only 1 chick usually survives. Another strange but true fact of nature reveals that one chick will harass or kill the other, a behavior known as siblicide.

Predators of the American White Pelican include coyotes, ravens, and great-horned owls.  (allaboutbirds.org)

Finally, one last fact about this large, graceful bird that majestically soars through the air: During mating season a yellow plate, called a nuptial tubercle, forms on the upper bill of breeding adults. This fibrous plate falls off after the birds have mated and the female lays her eggs. (nhpbs.org)

allaboutbirds.org


Mallards

Ducks have returned to Simone Pond since the restoration project has begun!

The Mallard is the ancestor of nearly all domestic duck breeds. The male has the dark green iridescent head and bright yellow bill. Females and juveniles, however, have orange and brown bills and their body feathers are a mottled brown. (allaboutbirds.org)

allaboutbirds.org

These large ducks with rounded heads and wide, flat bills can live in any wetland area, and may even hang out around your pool in the summer.

They are “dabbling ducks”, which means they feed in the water by tipping forward as opposed to diving.

Generally monogamous, mallards pair off in the autumn and court throughout winter. Only the female incubates the eggs, cares for the ducklings, and makes the familiar quacking sound of a duck. The male produces a quiet rasping sound. (allaboutbirds.org)

Another “Cool Fact“ from allaboutbirds.org…

Like other ducks, mallards shed all of their flight feathers during the summer molting season. They are flightless, vulnerable, and secretive during these 3-4 weeks as their body feathers slough into a concealing “eclipse” plumage that can camouflage their appearance.

commons.wikimedia.org

This spring, 10 ducklings with their Mama paid us a visit at Simone Pond. (A very good sign that the waters are healthier after eradicating the invasive fish.)

courtesy of Ginny Short, CNLM Preserve Biologist/Preserve Manager

courtesy of Mary McKay, Preserve Docent

courtesy of Mary McKay, Preserve Docent

courtesy of Mary McKay, Preserve Docent

Unfortunately this “paddling” of 10 ducklings kept dwindling almost daily, until only 2 survived. Ah, the cycle of life… We suspect our great-horned owls, barn owls, and red-tailed hawks may have scooped them up.


GreaT-horned owl

The palm grove around Simone Pond, known as McCallum Grove, is a favorite nesting place for this thick-bodied gray-brown owl with a reddish-brown face and 2 prominent feathered tufts on its head that look like horns, but are not.  (allaboutbirds.org)

audubon.org, courtesy of Christopher Schwarz

The Great-Horned Owl is the most perfect embodiment of what I picture when I think of the phrase, “the wise old owl”. Its piercing yellow eyes stare right through me as if this bird can read the story of my soul, my most intimate and raw thoughts.

One of the most common owls of North America, the Great-Horned is equally “at home” in deserts, wetlands, forests, backyards, cities, and almost any other semi-open habitat between the Arctic and the Tropics. (allaboutbirds.org)

On Easter morning, Mary (docent) and Frank (bird hike guide) visited the Pond with our Preserve Manager, Ginny, to assist her in setting crayfish traps. Mary found this “Easter Basket” of 3 Great-Horned fledglings up in the palm tree fronds and sent me these pics…

Last spring 3 owlets or nestlings were born in McCallum Grove and we watched their furry faces peak out of the nest, Mama Owl sitting nearby, of course.

Owls, like other modern birds, do not have teeth for chewing so they eat their prey whole and later regurgitate pellets of undigested material. (nwf.org)

Here’s a close up of one of these owl pellets…

And here’s the palm tree in McCallum Grove under which all these owl pellets were found…

Owls feed mostly on small mammals and other birds, but did you know that they are one of the only animals that will include skunks in their diet? They also have some unique adaptations that earn them their reputation as birds of prey. For example, their sense of hearing is so acute that they can detect a mouse stepping on a twig 75 feet (23 meters) away. And their eyes are so large in proportion to their head that they cannot move their eyes back and forth like humans, having to turn their heads up to 270 degrees (a 3/4 turn) to look in different directions. (nwf.org)


Long-Eared owl

These long and slender owls with tall ear tufts, orange faces, and yellow eyes roost in the palm trees along the boardwalk over the oasis on the Preserve. They appear in winter and are a special treat to look for and observe.

windowtowildlife.com, courtesy of Jim Edlhuber

This past spring our bird gurus spotted a pair of juveniles which was a special thrill.

And from Jeff’s pics…

Below are pictures of these same 2 owlets watching Jeff and me pull and trim rushes along the boardwalk. They just stared at us with their piercing yellow eyes, their heads following us as we moved to and fro. What an incredible experience to be in their presence for such a long time!


Barn owl

allaboutbirds.org/Darren Clark

Barn owls live all over the lower 48 United States, parts of southern Canada, and in much of the rest of the world… basically in any open habitat with an abundance of small nocturnal mammals to eat. In the desert this includes rats, mice, bats, and rabbits. (Fortunately, the round-tailed ground squirrels and white-tailed antelope squirrels are diurnal mammals and are relatively safe from the clutches of hungry barn owls.) Besides possessing excellent low-light vision, barn owls have an amazing ability to track and locate their prey by sounds alone. (allaboutbirds.org)

My first introduction to the barn owl on the Coachella Valley Preserve was out at Simone Pond. Jeff and I were newly vetted Preserve Hosts in the fall of 2018. We took a personally guided hike with Harlan who shared his vast knowledge of the Colorado desert… it’s flowers and shrubs, birds and reptiles and mammals, and of course the geology of the oasis created by the San Andreas Fault. We hiked the mile to Simone Pond and stopped briefly under the shade of palm trees in an area of the grove known as “The Citadel”, when suddenly large white wings sailed overhead and I felt something hit me lightly and splatter down the front of my t-shirt. Owl poop! A shit show! My baptism to the desert!

Barn owls are not particular in choosing where to place their nests… holes in trees, cliff ledges, cliff crevices, caves, burrows in river banks, and many different human structures, including barn lofts, church steeples, houses, haystacks, and even drive-in movie screens… or even in your own backyard in a homemade nest box. On the Preserve, we see them nesting on the ledges of the palm skirts.

The female prepares the nest by collecting her regurgitated pellets. She shreds them with her feet and molds them into a cup shape. About a month before laying eggs, her monogamous partner begins to bring hunted prey to the nest to both nourish Mama Owl and store for later when the babies hatch. (allaboutbirds.org)

I  could not find a suitable picture of a barn owl’s nest in its natural habitat. Apparently the popularity of attracting barn owls on one’s property has led to the abundance of homemade nest boxes. The one below at least gives you an idea of what the contents of the nest look like with the shredded pellets, the Mama, the owlets, and the yummy anticipation of a meal.

freedomok.net, courtesy of arkive.org and Christophe Perelle

Last spring (2019) we discovered 2 baby owls along the boardwalk oasis who had fallen out of their nest. Ginny rescued them and took them to the Coachella Valley Wild Bird Center, another non-profit organization, for the care and rehabilitation of injured, orphaned, or sick birds who will eventually be released back into their habitats. We just say, “Ginny took them to Linda.” … as in Linda York, the Executive Director.

This spring no one fell out of their nest. Here are some photos of the newest juvenile barn owl on the Preserve:

The wind kept blowing the palm leaves in front of the owl, so I just kept clicking pics…

Amboy Crater

Ash and Cinders…

This 6,000-year-old volcanic remnant is an almost perfectly symmetrical cinder cone, an example of geology creating geometry. Amboy Crater is situated in one of the youngest volcanic fields in the United States, halfway between Barstow and Needles, CA off Historic Route 66 National Trails Highway. (visitcalifornia.com and blm.gov)

It is about 2 hours away from Thousand Palms Oasis in the Coachella Valley. We take Dillon Road to Desert Hot Springs to connect with State Route 62, traveling through the Morengo and Yucca Valleys past Joshua Tree and Twentynine Palms… 

From SR 62 we turn north on Godwin Road and then head northeast on Amboy Road…


Amboy Crater was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1973 for its visual and geological significance.

The site offers picnic tables, restrooms, a hiking trail to the rim, and an ADA shaded overlook.

Amboy Crater is 250 feet high with a diameter of 1,500 feet. It’s most recent eruption was about 10,000 years ago.


You can hike to the rim of the crater and descend into the center. Unfortunately for us it is way too hot to even think about this 2-3 hour hike! It’s 117 degrees in the shade out here! Best to come back in the winter…

We did manage to sample the trail before heading back to an air-conditioned car…


The inside of the crater contains 2 lava dams behind which have formed small lava lakes that are now flat in appearance, covered with light colored clay, creating the impression of miniature “dry lakes.” (desertusa.com)

desertusa.com

There is a breach on the west side of the crater where lava poured out over 24 square miles, which contains lava lakes, collapsed lava tubes and sinks, spatter cones, and massive flows of basalt. (blm.gov)

According to the kiosk information, in addition to basalt, the lava flows were also rich in magnesium, iron, and calcium. Red colors from the rocks are the result of ferric iron created by steam on heated rocks. Tiny specks of green are olivine crystals.


Four years ago? Marco Paganini shared this photo on Google Maps

“The crater as seen from the rim. On the bottom left, the trail I used to hike up here. Ahead on the right, the rough trail I’ll use to get back down (but I don’t know it yet.)”

You bet we’ll be back this winter to hike to and down into Amboy Crater!

Native Lands

Then and Now…

abdnha.org

abdnha.org

abdnha.org

abdnha.org


Then…

Archeologists have discovered evidence of human activity in what is now Anza-Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP)as early as 6000 years ago. Very little is known about these native people except that they hunted with spears and stored their food underground in rock-lined storage units. Their technology did not yet include the bow and arrow or pottery.

When the first Spanish explorers entered this desert, over 200 years ago, the land was home to the Kumeyaay and Cahuilla people.

Archeologists speculate that the Kumeyaay, sometimes referred to as the Kamia or the Southern Digueno, moved from the Colorado River area, between 2000 and 1200 years ago, to the mountains and desert of what is now San Diego and Imperial Counties.

The Cahuilla are thought to have migrated out of the Great Basin 1500 to 1000 years ago to settle in what is now southern Riverside County across the San Jacinto and Santa Rosa Mountains to the Borrego Valley.

Although the Kumeyaay and Cahuilla spoke different languages and possessed different ancestry, they were both semi-nomadic peoples who adapted to the desert environment in similar ways, spending winter in the desert lowlands and moving to the higher mountains from late spring through fall.

Throughout ABDSP there are many examples of Native American technology left behind by the Kumeyaay and Cahuilla people. Upon flat-topped boulders and bedrock, you might see evidence of grinding surfaces where plant foods, such as mesquite beans, agave, pine nuts, and grass seeds, were processed. Rounded depressions in the rock are called morteros; basin-shaped indentations are called metates; smooth, flat, shiny surfaces are called slicks. (desertusa.com courtesy of Rae Schwaderer, ABDSP Archeologist)

abdnha.org

Where agave is growing you might see evidence of a roasting pit, an area of darkened soil approximately 13 feet in diameter, as agave was an important source of food. (desertusa.com courtesy of Rae Schwaderer, ABDSP Archeologist)

abdnha.org

And you might even see some Native American rock art in the form of pictographs and petroglyphs. Pictographs are painted or drawn on rock walls while petroglyphs are designs and symbols etched into the rock. Ethnographic science suggests that the shaman, or holy man of the community, may have produced most of the rock art in connection with puberty rites of passages, fertility ceremonies, and weather control.(desertusa.com courtesy of Rae Schwaderer, ABDSP Archeologist)

abdnha.org

abdnha.org


Now…

We circle our way back home to Thousand Palms Oasis through Cahuilla and Anza where descendants of our Native Ancestors live today. And then we wind our way down through the Santa Rosa Mountains where the Cahuilla used to live in the summer to escape the oppressive heat of the Colorado Desert.


So… we pick up 79 just before Warner Springs, a small community in northern San Diego County, named after Juan Jose Warner who received a Mexican land grant of almost 27,000 acres in 1844. Warner’s Ranch served as a way station for refugees on the Southern Emigrant Trail from 1849-1861; was the only trading post serving travelers between New Mexico and Los Angeles; and was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line from 1857-1861.

Southern Emigrant Trail…

slideplayer.com courtesy of Giles Weaver and Tom Jonas

Butterfield Overland Mail Stagecoach Trail…

parkplanning.nps.gov

Today Warner Springs is a resort and recreational destination featuring a natural hot springs, 4 wineries/vineyards, fine dining, swimming pools, horseback riding, golf, tennis, sky sailing, and a private airport. (warnerspringsranchresort.com)

phgcorp.com


Outside of the town of Aguanga we pick up SR 371 and head east, passing by several horse ranches before entering the Cahuilla Indian Reservation and Anza Valley.

Facilities in Cahuilla have addresses on Highway 371 and use Anza, CA (4 miles east) as their postal code. The Cahuilla Casino opened in 1996 and the Mountain Sky Travel Center, a convenience store and gas station opened in 2015. Both are owned by the Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians of the Cahuilla Reservation. Despite some delay from the coronavirus, a new casino and hotel replaced the original buildings and opened in May of 2020. (en.m.wikipedia.org)

The population of Anza, CA has more than doubled since 2010. Today almost 8,000 people live in this high desert valley nestled in the mountains between Los Angeles, Palm Desert (outside of Palm Springs), and San Diego.

The Cahuilla inhabited the Anza Valley more than 2,000 years ago. Spanish expeditions  brought the first Europeans to this valley as late as 1774. Explorer Juan Bautista de Anza first passed through here in March of 1774, and again in December of 1775. During the early 1800s European settlers included ranchers, miners, and honey producers. From the late 1860s on, Anza was largely settled by families seeking to build ranches under the Homestead Act.

The famous comedy entertainer, Red Skelton (1913-1997), owned a 600-acre ranch In the Anza Valley and lived here until his death. Who knew?  (en.m.wikipedia.org)


Established in 1893, the Ramona Band of Cahuilla is a federally-recognized Tribe situated in Anza, CA. Hugging the base of Thomas Mountain, the Reservation encompasses 560 acres of land that has been developed entirely off-grid. Solar arrays and battery systems, coupled with small-scale wind turbines, provide power to the Tribe’s residential homes and facility buildings. (ramona-nsn.gov)

Please visit the Tribal website of the Ramona Band of Cahuilla, ramona-nsn.govand scroll down to HISTORY where you can view a 4 minute video from a native Cahuilla woman…  I love it!


I take some quick pics as we pass through Anza…

The Little Red School House of 1914 once painted red? I think so…


Before we know it, we reach 74, nicknamed the Palms to Pines Highway. It’s a scenic drive filled with glorious views and harrowing switchbacks descending from the pine trees into the palm trees of Palm Springs and the surrounding desert cities.

I recommend you take your time and enjoy the scenery. And make sure you stop and stretch your legs at Cahuilla Teewwenet Vista Point before descending into the Coachella Valley.


Cahuilla Teewwenet Vista Point
 

The rugged lands seen here and along these short trails were the traditional homeland of the Mountain Cahuilla. Their culture is intimately connected to this landscape, a place they have called home for millennia.


All of the information that I am sharing with you at this beautiful vista comes from the plaques along the trail and the incredible woman whose first-hand knowledge is the source of them all.

Katherine Siva Saubel (1920-2011) was a Cahuilla tribal member dedicating her life to preserving her heritage as author, lecturer, museum developer and co-founder of the Malki Museum Press, an academic outlet for current California Native American  research.

violethillsproductions.com

themalkimovie.com


The Cahuilla learned to adapt on the desert floor in the heat and on tops of mountains in the cold. Within these environments they created a life that they appreciated and were thankful for, so much so that their culture became an extension of their environment.

“If you don’t have land you have nothing. And this land, to us, the Indian people, doesn’t just mean a piece of land. This is a sacred area. This was given to us by our Creator, to take care of it, to live here in harmony with it, and that’s why we were put here—to protect it.” (Katherine Siva Saubel, 1993)

“…if they went harvesting they never took it all. You didn’t exhaust the supply to the point where you stripped everything.” (Jay Modesto)


Natural Resources

Sugar Bush ( Nakwet)

calscape.org courtesy of Keir Morse

The berries were gathered in the spring and either eaten fresh or dried and ground into flour. The leaves were steeped into a tea to suppress coughs and treat colds.

Pinyon (Tevat)

calscape.org courtesy of Daniel Mayer

Pine nuts were collectively gathered by several clans because the nuts could be plentiful in a certain area one year and scarce the next. A single tree produces a great crop every 5-7 years. Did you know it takes 2 years for a pine cone to develop?

Pine pitch was used as an adhesive to mend pottery and baskets, and to attach arrowheads to shafts.

Buckhorn Cholla (Mutal)

The fruit was eaten fresh in the spring or gathered, dried, and stored. The buds were boiled or roasted on hot stones before eating. Even with the prickly spines, all of the plant was used either as food or as medicine. The ashes from the roasted stems were used to treat cuts and burns.

Mojave Yucca (Hunavet)

desertusa.com

The Cahuilla ate the blossoms and roasted the fruit pods and stalks. The roots were mashed to make soap. The leaves produced a strong fiber used to make rope, bowstrings, sandals, baskets, mats, carrying nets, and saddle blankets.

Scrub Oak (Pawish)

calscape.org courtesy of John Doyen

Acorns were one of the most important foods. Just as areas were shared to collect pinyon nuts, acorns were also shared gathering areas.

The acorns from Pawish were shelled, ground into flour, and leached to make it edible. According to nativeamericannetroots.net, the leaching process was done by digging a shallow sand pit near a creek or stream. The flour was then spread in the bottom of the pit and water was continuously poured over it until it was sweet. This could take several hours. After leaching, the flour was mixed with better-tasting flour from other oak species.

Acorn flour was used to bake Sawish, a flat bread, and was also used to prepare a mush called Wiwish.

Prickly Pear Cactus (Qexe’yily)

desertusa.com

The pads of the cactus were harvested in spring and summer, then boiled and roasted before eating. They would also grind the pads raw into a drink. In early fall the fruit was collected and eaten raw or mashed into a sweet beverage.

Desert Agave (Amul)

An abundant plant, Amul was one of their staple foods. A spring harvest festival, called Kewe’t, was celebrated in the spring when the desert agave was gathered. The mature hearts, young stalks, flowers, fruit pods, and seeds were eaten. Cooked agave was also traded for other foods that were not so plentiful.

The fiber was made into carrying nets and sandals. By pulling a thorn off a dried plant with some fiber attached, a ready-made needle and thread could be used to sew other materials together.

Although women mostly gathered and prepared food, cooking agave was a job done by men. It took 3 nights to roast the agave hearts and was a special time for young men and boys to learn ceremonial songs and stories that were passed from generation to generation.

California Juniper (Yuyily)

The berries were eaten fresh, added to other foods as seasoning, or dried and ground into flour.

As a medicine the Yuyily berries were used to make tea or simply chewed to cure colds and fever.


Just beautiful…


Unfortunately, perhaps, we are living on what was once Cahuilla land a long time ago. Fortunately, we do appreciate the way our brothers and sisters lived in harmony with the plants and animals, giving thanks for the use of these natural resources and taking only what was needed. Jeff and I understand we are living on a sacred parcel of the desert in Thousand Palms Oasis. We are honored to be caretakers here and to share the Cahuilla traditions with visitors.

Unfortunately, the world is losing its focus and ability to live in harmony with all of our natural resources. We have taken more than we need and what we have left behind is not enough to replenish the supply.

I wish I had a “fortunately” to add, but I don’t.

Borrego Springs

A Day Trip…

We try to get off the Preserve one day a week to explore the area around us. Today we decide to visit the metal sculptures that dot the Colorado Desert in Borrego Springs. This little town is completely surrounded by the largest State Park in California, Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, (ABDSP), encompassing over 600,000 acres of badlands, slot canyons, mud caves, cactus-studded hills, a palm oasis, and plenty of dirt roads for 4-wheel-drivers to enjoy. Elevations range from 8,000 feet to below sea level. The park is named for the 18th century Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza and borrego, the Spanish word for sheep. Borrego Springs is also a designated International Dark-Sky Community. (yournorthcounty.com, desertusa.com, and visitcalifornia.com)

desertusa.com

google maps

Here we are heading north toward the Santa Rosa Mountains.

Ten minutes later we encounter the famous 350-foot-long sea monster sculpture that gives the illusion of snaking into and over the top of the desert sand.


Ricardo Breceda is the sculptor of this magnificent serpent. Born in Durango, Mexico, he has lived in California for over 25 years. He discovered his passion for creating metal artwork when his daughter Lianna, who was 6-years-old at the time, asked her father for a dinosaur of her own after watching Jurassic Park III.

ricardobreceda.com

Breceda was a cowboy boot salesman at the time and it just so happened that he had recently traded a pair of boots for a welding machine. So, he welded a dinosaur out of metal for Lianna and the rest is history, as creating sculptures became a new hobby and he accidentally discovered his talent as an artist.

ricardobreceda.com

Eventually Ricardo crossed paths with Dennis Avery, an heir to the famous label maker family. Avery owned a large estate in Borrego Springs called Galleta Meadows which he wanted to turn into an outside art gallery. So, Avery commissioned Breceda to design and create over 130 pieces of art scattered throughout Borrego Springs. His creations include, besides dinosaurs, prehistoric mammals, historical characters, insects, and animals. (ricardobreceda.com)

ricardobreceda.com

ricardobreceda.com

californiathroughmylens.com

californiathroughmylens.com

californiathroughmylens.com

californiathroughmylens.com

californiathroughmylens.com


The area around the sculptures is roped off so we respectfully enjoy the artwork from a distance.


We discover this grove of saguaro cactus down a dead end side street…


We head back home by  continuing west through Christmas Circle in Borrego Springs, and the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park on Montezuma Valley Road (County Road S-22) which slithers its way up from the Borrego Valley into the hills of the San Ysidro Mountains before leveling off at Ranchito.  (sandiegocounty.gov)

We begin heading northeast at Highway 79 near Warner Springs where we will then catch Highway 371 that will lead us onto Highway 74 that takes us back onto Monterey Avenue in Palm Desert to Ramon Road and Thousand Palms Canyon Road… back beneath the palm trees towering over the oasis… which we call home.

home.znet.com

google maps


Up, Up, and Away…

We drive into a pull-out and take pics of the desert valley below…

At an elevation of 2,300 feet, we overlook the immense Anza-Borrego Desert State Park…


These hills are the home of bighorn sheep, the borrego of Anza-Borrego.

plaque at overlook

plaque at overlook

They live nimbly on these rocky slopes in the rugged and open environment they call home. Their climbing skills and excellent vision help them avoid predators. Their horns are useful tools for opening cacti to drink the moisture stored within.

But these icons of the desert are endangered. Since the 1800s, grazing of cattle and domestic sheep, disease, hunting, mining, and loss of habitat and water holes have reduced the herd to a fraction of what it once was. (plaque at overlook)



Yes, the desert is hot in the summer but, as you can see, it is worth enjoying within an air-conditioned car. The landscape is still beautiful when barren, but is it really barren? Look closely and you will discover that plants thrive and blossom all the time. The rocks speak. The sand speaks. The plants live to tell their stories.

And humans, who lived here as early as 6,000 years ago, continue to enrich this desert landscape with their ingenuity, creating a place to discover, enjoy, and be amazed.

I am always amazed!

All My Critters… Part 2

Great and Small on the Preserve

gambel’s quail

Gambel’s quail have round bodies with a feather plume on their heads. These ground-hugging desert dwellers prefer to run than fly. Gathering in groups, called coveys, we see them strutting along bushy washes as they run between the cover of one bush to the next. Sometimes they will suddenly break into flight  to hop up across a barrier or post a lookout on a low shrub. (allaboutbirds.org)

I’ve never been quick enough to get a picture of these guys before, until we heard their distinctive clucking/crowing calls while “streaming” (pulling tamarisk seedlings and pulicaria along the stream of the Coachella Valley Preserve), and I saw one fly up onto a nearby smoketree branch to assume a lookout position.

Gambel’s quail tend to live in washes and wetland areas where there are dense thickets of honey mesquite, cat’s claw, arrowweed, and four-wing saltbush. Their diet consists of plants, leaves, seeds of grasses, and seeds from coyote scat. Newly hatched chicks, however, only eat insects for the first few days of their lives.

Females build their nests on the ground, concealed and shielded beneath a shrub, clump of cactus, or other protective vegetation. Mom lays 5-15 eggs (clutch) and after 21-31 days the eggs hatch. Upon hatching, this brand new brood of baby quail are able to leave the nest and follow their parents. (allaboutbirds.org)

The male’s plumage is more vibrant and distinctive than the female’s plumage. After all, the females benefit from a more camouflaged appearance to protect her brood when laying her clutch of eggs and incubating them until the babies hatch.

allaboutbirds.org

allaboutbirds.org

audubon.org

I read this “Cool Fact” on Cornell University’s website, allaboutbirds.org:

Just before her eggs hatch, the female gambel’s quail calls to the chicks, who cheep to each other from inside the eggs. The eggs hatch in synchrony, with the chick cutting a neat hole in the largest part of the shell and leaving an intact piece of membrane to serve as a “hinge” — the chick pushes on the shell and opens the “door” that it has created.


white-winged dove

Medium-sized with a small head and short, square-tipped tail, these doves are pale brown overall with a white stripe along their wing. In flight, this stripe becomes a large white patch on their inner wing. (allaboutbirds.org)

allaboutbirds.org, courtesy of Ted Bradford

I only recognize white-winged doves by their long hooting call, “whooOOO-oo, ooo-oo”, which sounds like, “who cooks for you?” 

That’s why I know this is a white-winged dove sitting on this dead palm tree. I heard the distinct call and looked up and there he/she was…

One evening, when Jeff and I were walking through the palm grove toward Squaw Hill, we heard “who cooks for you?” to the right of us. A few seconds later a second dove to the left of us responded, “who cooks for you?”. This banter continued for several minutes without resolving the issue of who cooks for who, however…

Stevie Nicks introduced millions of Americans to the white-winged dove with her 1980s song, “Edge of Seventeen,” which hit #11 on the Billboard charts.

 bestclassicbands.com


Mourning Dove

Plump, long-tail, short legs, small bill, and a head that looks small in comparison to the rest of its body… It’s the mourning dove.

allaboutbirds.org

I also recognize this dove from its call… “who-OOO-oo-oo-oo” and not by sight.

According to en.wikipedia.org, “This species’ call is a distinctive, plaintive CooOOOoo-woo-woo-woooo, uttered by males to attract females, and may be mistaken for the call of an owl.

The mourning dove is one of our most abundant birds with a U.S. estimated population of 350 million. Perhaps one reason these doves survive in the desert is that they can drink brackish spring water (up to almost half the salinity of sea water) without becoming dehydrated the way humans would. (allaboutbirds.org)


Eurasian Collared-Dove

This relative of the mourning dove earns its name from the black half-collar at the nape of the neck. With a flash of white tail feathers and a flurry of dark-tipped wings, the collared-dove’s call is a shorter and more frequent who-OO-ooo.

Not native to North America, these doves were introduced to the Bahamas in the 1970s where a pet store burglary allowed several birds to escape, or so the story goes. The owner of the store then released the rest of the flock of approximately 50 more. Around the same time, flocks of collared-doves were set free on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe when a volcano threatened eruption. From these sites, the birds made their way to Florida and now live happily all over the continent. (allaboutbirds.org)

allaboutbirds.org


desert iguana

This picture is from my first sighting this year, back in late February or early March, when Ginny and I were pulling Sahara mustard in Moon Country.

Desert iguanas are native dwellers of the Sonoran Desert of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico and the Mojave Desert of the Western United States.

courtesy of James W. Cornett

They are terrestrial animals but are capable of climbing 3 feet above ground in creosote bushes, one of their favorite habitats, to find food. (animaldiversity.org)

James W. Cornett

(We have his book (Desert Lizards, 2006) as a reference resource in the Palm House Visitor Center. A professional naturalist and desert ecologist, James W. Cornett who lives in the Coachella Valley, is a prolific writer on a variety of desert subjects.)

amazon.com

Desert iguanas like it hot! Extremely heat tolerant, they are active midday in the spring, summer, and fall when temperatures average 104 degrees Fahrenheit/40 degrees Celsius. Most of the day they bask in the hot sun, less fearful of predators who are not able to withstand the high temperatures. (animaldiversity.org)

Desert iguanas are primarily folivores, leaf eaters. Over 90% of their diet consists of buds, leaves, and flowers, especially creosote bush flowers and leaves. They will occasionally eat insects such as ants and some beetles. (animaldiversity.org)

These medium-sized lizards seem to be attracted to the color yellow as evidenced by their spring diet of yellow flowers, especially those of the creosote bush.

abdnha.org

They have even been observed eating yellow flagging tape! Captive desert iguanas will eat dandelion flowers and yellow mealworms, which are the larva of the mealworm beetle.  (animaldiversity.org)


Zebra-tailed lizard

Quite possibly the fastest reptile in the desert, the zebra-tailed lizard raises the forepart of its body completely off the ground and only uses its back legs for running up to 35 miles per hour. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

Here’s what they look like when they run…

sabinonaturalist.org

The black-and-white bands, more pronounced on the underside of its tail, give this lizard its name. When lying on the ground with a flat tail, it is almost invisible, camouflaged with the desert sand and gravel.


WhipTail Lizard

This guy has a pointed snout and extremely long tail that breaks away when pulled by a predator. Sensing humans, whiptails will run beneath the nearest bush at speeds up to 15 miles per hour, making them extremely difficult to photograph. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

I finally snapped a quick pic of this whiptail heading for cover beneath the skirt of the California Fan Palm Tree.

Here’s a better view of its long tail from a professional nature photographer.

abdnha.org, courtesy of Gary Nafis 

Most lizards use a “sit and wait” hunting strategy, that is they rest with forelegs extended to observe a broad area and then rush in and snap up their prey. Whiptails, however, are active hunters, scampering from bush to bush, digging beneath leaf and frond litter, poking their snouts into crevices, and even climbing in shrubs. They constantly flick their tongues to smell prey they cannot see. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)


Side-Blotched lizard

burkemuseum.org

This little reptile is the desert’s most abundant lizard. Because of its small size, the side-blotched’s body heats up quickly so it can remain active during the warm fall, winter, and early spring temperatures in the Colorado Desert of the Preserve. (The Colorado is the hottest portion of the Sonoran Desert.) So while other lizards need to hibernate in these cooler temps, the side-blotched lizard can breed throughout the year in the southern desert.

Brownish in color, this lizard gets its name from the dark blotch on each side of its chest, just behind the front leg. (desertusa.com)

courtesy of James W. Cornett

I, however, have never caught a good glimpse of the side-blotched’s blotch. All I know is that if I see a lizard that is not a desert iguana, whiptail, zebra-tailed, spiny, leopard, or chuckwalla, it has to be a side-blotched. (And then, as I learned more about Uta stansburiana, I read on the National Park Service’s website, nps.gov, that this blotch is sometimes faint or absent.)

Male side-blotched lizards are very territorial. If another male enters its domain, the male whose territory is being violated approaches the intruder, puffs up its torso, and bobs up and down as if doing push-ups. If this behavior does not send the interloper away, a very short battle ensues, lasting only a few seconds. The loser is chased away, most likely with a missing tail.

Female side-blotched lizards can store sperm, enabling them to lay more than one clutch without having to mate again. Their high rate of reproduction (up to 6 clutches of 2-6 eggs per year) also accounts for the side-blotched lizard’s widespread presence in the southern desert. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)


Desert Spiny lizard

We see them scooting along the boardwalk across the oasis as we cut down overgrown reeds pushing through the slats and flanking the railings.  Another one frequents the bushes near the front of our RV. I mean, with the naked eye you can see this bigger guy scoot across the parking lot or bask for awhile in the sun. With binoculars we have positively identified him. All of our efforts to take his picture, however, have failed.

So, all I can offer is this photo from the internet…

americansouthwest.net

There are 7 species of spiny lizards in the deserts of the southwest. The spiny is covered from head to toe with spine-tipped, overlapping scales that often, but not always, serve as protection from predators. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

californiaherps.com, courtesy of Gary Nafis

In addition to the sharp scales, a second defense mechanism has evolved among spiny lizards and other lizards as well. It’s a breakaway tail that wiggles violently after being pulled off. The predator becomes so focused on the wiggling appendage allowing the lizard to escape. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

But wait! Last week I took this pic of a spiny lizard behind the Palm House Visitor Center. As I moved in closer, he took off… But at least I got the picture!


Leopard Lizard

Jeff spotted, (pun intended) this leopard last year on the Preserve. The name, leopard, suits them physically from the dark spots on their scales, powerful jaws, and their voracious preying behavior. The leopard lizard sits and waits for another lizard or large insect to come into view and quickly rushes in to seize its prey. This lizard has been known to devour small mice and snakes as well. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

californiaherps.com, courtesy of Gary Nafis

During breeding season, the female develops reddish-orange spots and bars on her body and the underside of her tail turns this terra-cotta color as well. After laying her eggs, the colors slowly disappear. (James W. Cornett, from his book Desert Lizards, 2006)

californiaherps.com, courtesy of Gary Nafis 


And finally…

This little guy/gal, playing “king of the rock”, was sunbathing and I just had to take its picture. When in doubt, just identify the lizard as a side-blotched and people will be impressed. 😉

All About Oliver

A Sanfilippo Story by Grammy L…

Little Sis

She’s always got her eye on him—whether imitating him, finding a guaranteed laugh for her poop jokes, seeing if he’s going to, as he always does, give her his cookie, or dive in with a hug and kiss and wrestle when he’s having a rough moment. She’s got the heart and strength needed for a special needs sibling. (This is what my daughter-in-law posted about Reagan on her Facebook blog, Oliver’s Tomorrow on June 7th.) 💪💜💪💜



She loves:

…dressing up as Elsa from the movie Frozen, while Big Bro is into Toy Story, Cars, and streaming Paw Patrol and Daniel Tiger on Amazon Prime.

…tutus, especially the ones Magaw (Oliver’s name for “Grandma” for Jen’s Mom and my sister from another mother) sews for her…

…drawing, coloring, painting whether on paper or herself…

…swings…

…animals! (because they like her too)…

…being curious, as in “What happens if I poke this dinosaur’s tail in my nose?”


I observe Reagan growing, thriving, developing, just like Oliver… Until we knew something was not right. I will never ever forget my phone call with Brian in October of 2019 when he tearfully told me Oliver’s diagnosis. His words, “and he doesn’t even know,” still pierce my heart with a wound that will never heal. Our whole family’s world blew up! Sanfilippo Syndrome, a genetic disorder so rare and unheard of before, has now, unfortunately, become a household word. We can deal with rare,  but not terminal with no cure on the horizon. Not Oliver, our precious love-love boy whose smile lights up a room, literally!

Reagan has been tested and she is not lacking that single, yes single enzyme necessary to break down long chains of sugar molecules in the brain that, when they accumulate in children’s cells, the cellular machinery cannot work properly. Bottom line… cells die and vital brain tissue is lost. With Sanfilippo Syndrome, Oliver’s little body doesn’t have the necessary enzymes to break down the sugar molecules called heparan sulfate. (curesanfilippofoundation.org)

Reagan will, sadly, surpass Oliver’s cognitive development. But, in the meantime, please find out more about Sanfilippo Syndrome and meet the rest of our “family”dealing with this fatal disorder at https://curesanfilippofoundation.org/


All My Critters… Part 1

Great and Small on the Preserve

Coyote

A member of the dog family, Canidae, desert coyotes weigh about 20 pounds as compared to their 50 pound cousins who live in the mountains. And because of the cooler temps in higher elevations, mountain coyotes have longer, darker hair and a bushier coat than the desert coyotes of the Coachella Valley Preserve  who are usually tan or gray with a black-tipped tail. (desertusa.com)

At night we look forward to hearing their quavering howls which in coyote language translates into, “I am here. This is my space. Females, you are welcome to follow my voice and join me, but males, you need to stay away. Please answer me to let me know where you are so we don’t have any unwanted conflicts.”

Sometimes we hear a series of short high-pitched yelps. This noise may be from young pups playing or a pack of coyotes arguing or celebrating.

Coyotes will bark when protecting their den of pups or protecting the prey they just killed.

Canis latrans is the scientific name for coyotes and it means “barking dog.” I think our dog Casey was part coyote. (We miss you love-love dog… I hope you felt how much we loved you! We rescued you and you protected us.)

Very rarely will you hear coyotes huff. This subdued noise is reserved for calling to their pups. (desertusa.com)

Coyotes, of course, have excellent hearing for detecting prey and avoiding danger. The movement and position of their ears communicate mood and rank.

Coyotes roam alone, in pairs, or in a pack. Like dogs, they mark their territory with urine. And they can easily leap over an 8 foot fence or wall.

In desert habitats, coyotes live and hunt within a range of 10-12 square miles. In the mountains they have both a summer and winter range as heavy snows drive them to lower elevations. (desertusa.com)

Hunting both day and night, coyotes exist on a varied diet of mice, rats, rabbits, ground squirrels, insects, lizards, and the fruits and berries of wild plants. (desertusa.com)

On the Coachella Valley Preserve they enjoy the fallen palm fruit from the California Fan Palm trees in the autumn and winter.

northamericantrees.com

Coyote mating season begins in January when several lone males gather around one female with the hopes of courtship. The female, however, will form a relationship with only one of them. The new couple will then travel together for awhile before mating.

The female bears one litter of 3-9 pups a year in April or May when food is abundant. The gestation period is 63-65 days. (desertusa.com)

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve

The pups are born blind. Their eyes open when they are 14-days-old and a few days later, they emerge from the natal den. (desertusa.com)

Coyotes prepare their dens in rocky crevices, under dense thickets, or by digging a burrow in the ground. After the pups are weaned the new family abandons the den but often return to it from year to year. (coyotesmarts.org)

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve

Pups suckle for 5-7 weeks and start eating semi-solid food after 3 weeks. Dad supports his new family with regurgitated food, but Mom does not allow him to come all the way into the den. (desertusa.com)

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve

The pups live and play in the den for 6-10 weeks until Mom starts taking them out with her to hunt as a group. Gradually the family disbands. By autumn the pups are old enough to hunt alone and before their first birthday coyote pups are ready to go their own way to stake out their own territory. (desertusa.com)

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve

courtesy of Ken Mix, co-host on the Preserve


Pocket Gopher

This elusive little guy popped up one day so unexpectedly between the Palm House Visitor Center and the restrooms. First he dug a tunnel and plugged it up from underneath with a large mound of sand and dirt. Then within minutes, he suddenly opened another hole behind the original mound (a patio maybe?) and closed that hole. I was mesmerized so I stood still and waited. Sure enough, he emerged again, in front of the original mound (a front porch maybe?) and then escaped into one of its extensive underground tunnels, burying the opening once again.

Active all year round, these heavy-bodied animals measure about 9 inches long and weigh 6-8 ounces. Desert pocket gophers have very small ears and eyes, a short naked tail and large forelimbs with long claws… (The better to dig with, my dear.) Their lips close behind large incisor teeth so that dirt doesn’t get in their mouths while they dig.

Pocket gophers are found naturally throughout the Sonoran Desert region where there are easily dug soils, such as those in riparian areas (wetlands), washes, and mesquite groves. (desertmuseum.org)

Pocket gophers are very shy and timid and seldom leave their underground tunnel system. They prefer to pull plants down into the tunnel from below. These animals are vegetarians and their diet consists of roots, tubers, grasses, green plants, and prickly pear cactus. Occasionally they will open a hole to allow some air exchange in the tunnel or to let tunnels dry out after heavy rains. (desertmuseum.org)

These gophers are solitary critters and only get together for mating once, maybe twice a year, with 2-6 young born 19 days later. In 3 months these youngsters are sexually mature. (desertmuseum.org)


Roadrunner

The Greater Roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus, is probably the most famous bird in the southwest, featured in folklore and cartoons (Beep! Beep!) and known by its long tail and shaggy appearance. It walks and runs on the ground up to 15 miles per hour, only flying when necessary.

Roadrunners eat insects including tarantulas, scorpions, and centipedes. They also catch lizards, snakes, mice, young ground squirrels, and small birds such as sparrows, hummingbirds, and young quail. (audubon.org)

According to allaboutbirds.org, a website created by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, roadrunners kill rattlesnakes by pecking them repeatedly in the head, and from what I have gathered in my research, they most likely work in pairs with one roadrunner distracting the attention of the venomous viper. After snatching lizards, mice, and birds, roadrunners slam this larger prey against rocks or the ground multiple times to break down the bones and elongate the victim for easier swallowing.


Raven

The Common Raven, Corvus corax, is a massive, bird the size of a hawk, with a thick neck, shaggy throat feathers, and a heavy, dense, extremely powerful bill. This bird is entirely black including legs, eyes, and bill, and is often confused with a crow. But there are no crows in the Coachella Valley according to Anita K. Booth, an accredited bird biologist with Cornell University’s Lab of Ornithology and the author of the bird guide, Birds of the Coachella Valley, published in 2009.

Typically foraging in pairs, these bold birds will work cooperatively to flush out prey and search for nests to eat the eggs, hatchlings, or nestlings. Ravens are opportunistic omnivores and will eat just about anything including insects, lizards, rodents, berries, and garbage. The majority of the diet of these scavengers, however, consists of carrion, the decaying body of dead animals. (audubon.org)

Noisy and playful, ravens will put on an aerobatic performance of sudden rolls,  wing-tucked dives, and playing with objects by dropping them and catching them in midair. (allaboutbirds.org)

A large group of ravens (known collectively as an unkindness) starts descending upon the California Fan Palms on the Oasis Preserve in October to eat the fresh palm fruit and catch whatever treats they find within the fronds. After all the visitors are gone, a a raven or two will strut through the parking lot looking for dropped bits of food left behind.

According to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, the reason there is a large group showing up in autumn is because these ravens are too young to start pairing up yet. This makes sense because as winter approaches spring, only one or two birds delight us with their antics.

Ravens and crows look a lot alike, but their are subtle differences.

Ravens are larger and make a low croaking sound. They usually travel in pairs, except when they are still young. Crows are more gregarious and favor the company of a larger group. Their call is more of a cawing sound.

A crow’s tail feathers are usually all the same length, so its tail opens like a fan. A raven has longer middle feathers in its tail, so it looks more like a wedge or a triangle. The crow has a smaller bill while the raven has a great big chunky-looking  beak. (birdnote.org, Ravens and Crows – Who’s Who?, adapted by Dominic Black from a piece by Frances Wood and Dennis Paulson)

Below is a picture of a crow, left, and a raven, right:

birdnote.org/Tom Grey

And finally, ravens are more graceful and agile in flight, with light wingbeats and occasional soaring. Crows often appear to be swimming across the sky. (allaboutbirds.org)


Costa’S hummingbird

The costa’s is the hummingbird I am most familiar with in the Coachella Valley. When perched and at rest, this bird is small, short, and stocky-looking. Like most birds, the female is blandly colored…

audubon.org/Joan Fox

…but when the light hits the male just right, his crown and throat shimmer in a vivid iridescence that appears bright blue or purple…

audubon.org/Joan Fox

The costa’s diet consists mostly of nectar and insects. While hovering, it extends its bill within the flower to extract the nectar. Insects are often caught midair or plucked from foliage. (audubon.org)

These hummingbirds nest in late winter and spring, with one male mating with several females. Nests are 2-8 feet above ground, placed on horizontal or diagonal branches of sparsely-leaved shrub or small trees. Sometimes the females build their nests in yucca or cactus. (audubon.org)

Female costa’s typically lay 2 white eggs per clutch, the total number of eggs laid in one nesting attempt. And according to Anita K. Booth’s Birds of the Coachella Valley published in 2009, the eggs are laid 1-3 days apart.

Incubation lasts between 14-23 days (Anita K. Booth) and 15-18 days (audubon.org).

Within 3 weeks, give or take a few days, the newly hatched youngsters are ready to take their first flight with Mom. (audubon.org)

A Sacred Footpath

The Trail of the 57 Shrines

Jeff and I have been looking for this trail ever since Harlan told us about it when we first arrived at the Preserve in the fall of 2018. It’s not a marked trail on any of our maps. So, sorry, I will not share how to find this trail, but I will share the experience of walking along the over 500-year-old path of the Native Cahuilla Tribes whose lands we stole.

Harlan would explain to us how to find this trail, but we never did, that is until today when he hiked with us and showed us from a distance where we needed to descend and ascend to connect with a narrow footpath.


It is not obvious where to access this trail and even less obvious as to how to get there. (But, promise me! If you do, PLEASE be respectful. Stay on the trail and do not disturb any rocks or carry out a souvenir! Make this a memorable moment in your life and just take pictures.)





Once we stepped onto the narrow trail, I knew I was walking upon special ground and I felt connected to these indigenous people who learned how to survive and thrive in the desert heat and sand with a minimal supply of water.


As I respectfully moved forward, I so hoped that the sound waves from each step I took composed themselves into a song honoring the Native Cahuilla. You don’t know me and I don’t know you but I am your sister, your daughter, your student. You are my brothers and sisters, my parents, my teachers. (The only other time in my life that I felt this collective consciousness experience was when I landed in Africa and stepped off the plane. I was in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. My first thought, that came out of nowhere was, “I am home.“)


Prehistoric Trails in the Colorado Desert

The indigenous people of southeastern California and western Arizona left a lasting legacy of their presence in the form of numerous trails crisscrossing the Colorado desert. Their more modern contemporaries also relied on these same footpaths to travel between permanent settlements for trade and warfare, to travel to seasonal base camps to collect stone and foraging resources, and to travel to temporary campsites along exploitation trails. These ancient Indian trails were also ritual routes leading to sacred sites.

Research conducted in 1987 and 1996 hypothesized that the repeated pounding of feet upon these trails pressed the rocks of the desert pavement into the soil or pushed them aside to reveal the lighter-colored subsoil. A 2003 study, however, suggested the prehistoric trails were deliberately cleared. (scahome.org)


scahome.org

scahome.org

Cleared circles of various sizes are often found along trail segments. In 1966 Malcolm Rogers referred to these clearings as sleeping circles, suggesting that they represented temporary camps. (scahome.org)



scahome.org

Rogers also suggested that the ruins of large circular rock cairns along these trails indicated their existence as shrines, “simple offerings, generally rock, presumably in the belief that they would prevent fatigue, sickness or injury while traveling.”

Andrew Pigniolo, Jackson Underwood, and James Cleland concluded in 1997 that “the religious and spiritual significance of trails, added to the well-recognized importance of desert trails for trade and travel, provides a portrait of trail patterns as an extremely significant heritage resource.” (scahome.org)


Trail Shrines

Rock cairns, circular mounds of stones, petroglyphs, tobacco pipes, broken pottery shards, and shell ornaments have been discovered along these interwoven trails.

I found an interesting and helpful 2003 article entitled “Trail Shrines in Native American Rock Art” by Galal R. Gough, a member of the Utah Rock Art Research Association (URARA). (utahrockart2.org) The URARA leads in the preservation and understanding of the value of rock art, encourages the appreciation and enjoyment of rock art, and assists in the study, presentation, and publication of rock art research.

Apparently in 1999 Gough received pictures of rock art from the Coachella Valley Historical Society. The pics were dated 1968 and were later discovered to be taken around the Salton Sea. At this time in his research, Gough was only familiar with what he called Safe Passage Trail Shrines as mentioned in Stephen Byrne’s 2011 article. 

Upon further study, however, Gough discovered differences in the petroglyphs of various shrine ruins, suggesting the likelihood of 2 more types of native shrines, the Harvest Trail Shrines and Hunting Trail Shrines.

Now, this is where the research gets fascinating. In June of 1951 Paul Wilhelm wrote an article for the local newspaper, The Desert Sun, describing a trail he discovered across from Thousand Palms Oasis. Wilhelm named this trail, The Trail of 57 Shrines because of the “record number of rock mounds-Trail Shrines of the ancient Indians who once camped“ at the Thousand Palms Spring. 

Thus, Gough hypothesized a 4th type of shrine, existed. Because of sleeping circles and other indications of ritual taking place over several days, he called these shrines and others he studied Sacred Gathering Trail Shrines


our sacred journey

Desert pavement… a stony surface without sand or vegetation covering an expanse of the world’s drylands… (thoughtco.com)


Seeing its presence on a wide desert vista, dark with age, gives a hint of the delicate balance of slow, gentle forces that create desert pavement. It is a sign that the land has been undisturbed for thousands and thousands of years. (Ahem, another reason why staying on established trails is so important!)

The darkish color of desert pavement is due to rock varnish, a coating built up over many decades by wind blown clay particles and the bacteria that live on them. 

There are 3 traditional theories explaining the creation of these stony deposits:

  1. Lag Deposit Theory suggests that the wind blew away all the fine-grained sand particles from sand dunes and left the heavier rocks behind.
  2. Moving Water Theory suggests that occasional rains in the desert splashed loose the sand and fine-grained materials so that a flash flood, in the form of a thin layer of rainwater or a sheet flow, swept away these tiny particles, leaving the rocks behind.
  3. Heave Theory suggests that repeated cycles of wetting and drying of the desert soil moved the stones to the top. 

But wait! A fourth theory from Stephen Wells suggests that “stone pavements are born at the surface.” Thus, due to heave, stones remain on the surface. However, a deposit of windblown dust must build up the soil beneath the pavement. I don’t even attempt to understand this, but for geologists this means that this dust is a record of ancient climate just as it is on the deep sea floor and in the world’s ice caps.

(Alden, Andrew. “Theories of Desert Pavement.” ThoughtCo, Feb. 11, 2020, thoughtco.com/theories-of-desert-pavement-1441193.)


The footpath…






You are quite right noticing the rock piles beside the trails…




And yes, some sleeping circles lie ahead (pun intended)…


Desert pavement, footpath, and sleeping circle…

 


Remnants of Trail Shrines…











 


A view of Thousand Palms Oasis… Do you see the dark green palm trees in the distance?


A cactus “tale”… beavertail cactus, that is…


A barrel full of barrel cactus…






Back on the marked trails again… bird’s eye view of Thousand Palms Oasis and Thousand Palms Canyon Road.




And here’s a view of the trail and washes along Bee Mesa…


And this view of Mt. San Jacinto hovering over Palm Springs and the desert cities…



There is nothing dull about the desert! There is always more to discover!

Quarantined in the Desert

Staying Put During the Covid-19 Shutdown

On May 1st Tom, our neighbor and co-host leaves for Utah.

From left to right, Tom, Ken, Rebecca, and Jeff gather to say goodbye as I take a picture.

Be safe, Tom, and know you will be missed…

Ken opens and closes the parking lot gate for Tom and takes a video. We all hope he will return in October. Fingers crossed.


So now it’s just Jeff and me on the Preserve.

What are we doing to keep busy? Besides reading, eating, binge streaming Netflix, Amazon Prime, and YouTube, eating, getting on each other’s nerves, eating, and missing our family and friends? And of course, eating!

Well…


First, we finish lining a trail with rocks that starts at the Pushawalla Loop Trailhead parking  area and heads south along Bee Mesa.

There are so many washes in this area and established trails are confusing to follow, especially since rains that cause flash flooding constantly wipe away the original trails.

As always, our hard work pays off.

After laying the final most perfect rock to complete the hiking pathway, I walk the trail to admire our contribution to the greater Coachella Valley Preserve for future visitors’ hiking enjoyment. (And yeah, to remind guests to please stay on the trail.)

This amazing Sand Blazing Star, with its 5 satin-like pale yellow petals and serrated leaves, smiles up at me in gratitude.


We hike the Indian Palms Trail loop clockwise and counterclockwise pulling Sahara mustard and to establish a possible trail through the wash to line later with rocks, pending our Preserve Manager, Ginny’s approval.

We discover that desert holly turns a pale pink.

And these huge rocks with pock marks and layers… I mean, we have walked by these guys many many times, but today we notice them!


At the south grove of Indian Palms, Jeff is convinced that we can head back through the wash to reach the old Indian Trail. I’m not one for saying, “I told you so,” (fingers crossed behind my back… ) but I know better. I find a steep descent into the wash and…

…a sunbathing speckled rattle snake blocking the hazardous pathway. Jeff thinks the snake is dead because of the bees buzzing around it. I wait and watch. Sure enough, its  tongue flickers in and out and then it curls its head toward the end of its body.

Jeff now agrees that this grove is an in and out trail. (You know I told him so!)


Ginny, grateful and impressed with our Sahara mustard weed-pulling skills, shows us the summer weeds that need constant attention: tamarisk and pulicaria. 🥴😱🥴

Tamarisk

According to usgs.gov, tamarisk is an invasive, non-native shrub or small tree. Also known as saltcedar, tamarisk thrives in alkaline soils where water availability is low. Ah, this means the streams of the Coachella Valley Preserve, created by the aquifer and the San Andreas Fault, are a perfect home for this unwelcome guest.

Tamarisk grows in dense, nearly impenetrable thickets, hoarding light, water, and nutrients that are precious to the desert ecosystem by replacing native cottonwoods, willows, and dry land plants that provide habitats for animals and birds. The plant’s  foliage and flowers offer little food value for native wildlife. Tamarisk also increases wildfire hazards. (discovermoab.com)

selectree.calpoly.edu, courtesy of W. Mark and J. Reimer 

selectree.calpoly.edu, courtesy of W. Mark and J. Reimer 

Here’s a young shrub blooming on the Preserve. The pink flowers are quite lovely, however, don’t be fooled. Each plant can produce as many as 500,000 seeds a year. Seeds are small with a tuft of hair at one end enabling them to float long distances by wind and water. Seeds are short-lived and can germinate within 24 hours after dispersal, sometimes while still floating on the water. (discovermoab.com)

And here’s a better pic from the internet.

invasive.org courtesy of Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

So, where is tamarisk from and how did it get here in the desert?

Originating from the dry areas of Eurasia and Africa, tamarisk was introduced to the Southwest in the 1800s, predominantly as a windbreaker along railroads and riverbanks. Of course it’s tolerance in dry climates made it a popular ornamental landscaping plant. (discovermoab.com)

Pulicaria

Another non-native flowering weed is Pulicaria, also known as Spanish false fleabane. (calflora.org)

calphotos.berkeley.org/Keir Morse at keiriosity.com


We follow the stream as it runs under Thousand Palms Canyon Road.

A Rush Milkweed is in full bloom.

This plant is also called Skeleton Milkweed because of its tall slender gray-green rush-like stems. Native to California, asclepias subulata, releases a sap that has been analyzed (way back in 1935) and found to contain natural rubber. This toxic milky juice was used to induce vomiting in some native cultures. (desertusa.com)

And I remember reading somewhere in my milkweed research that Native Americans chewed on certain species of milkweed like chewing gum. No, they couldn’t blow and pop bubbles…

Milkweed is crucial to the life-cycle of the monarch butterfly. Female monarchs search for milkweed to lay their eggs as the larvae will only feed on leaves from the asclepias family. The leaves contain cardiac glycosides which, when ingested by the caterpillars, protects them from becoming prey to birds. This protection continues when they become butterflies as well. Predators learn to avoid monarch larvae and butterflies because they taste bad or make them vomit. (swmonarch.org)

swmonarch.org


We continue down the stream toward Washington Street feeling confident in identifying and pulling tamarisk.

So far we don’t think we have seen pulicaria until we recognize the red stems… Wow! We hit the mother lode of a patch…


More pics of the stream…

And some surprises…

I stumble upon the only Ghost Flower I have seen this season!

So beautiful and precious a find…

Gamble Quail squawk and scatter along the wash. And then I look up and am so surprised to see a quail calm and settled in a Smoketree.

Speaking of Smoketrees…

They are blooming!

Datura or Jimson Weed grows abundantly in the washes. Notice the round green spiny seed pods of this healthy guy…

And the blooms just barely ready to open…

The stream dries up and we make our way to the stone-lined trail that crosses the road to Willis Palms on the west side, leads to Hidden Palms on the east side, or makes a right angle turn leading back to the Palm House Visitor Center along the base of Bee Mesa.

As we head back to the Visitor Center, we notice something rusted and abandoned toward Thousand Palms Canyon Road. We leave the trail, (only because we can as we volunteer and work here…) and walk toward this heap of an old Volkswagen Bus riddled with bullet holes…

The bus, not the bullet holes, reminds me of Jeff’s son, Andy… When he lived with us in Cincinnati he was working on restoring one.


On Fridays Jeff and I take the Preserve truck and drive out to the pond which is still closed for the restoration and eventual reintroduction of pupfish.

Our job is to clean up the piles of dead reeds, that were cut down and pulled from the pond last spring and summer, and all the other piles of debris that were removed to fence the area in to protect wildlife from the restoration project.

It’s a slow process. We rake and fill the truck bed with a load of debris. Then we drive it back to the dumpster in our parking lot at the Palm House Visitor Center. The garbage  gets picked up on Thursday, so Friday is a good day to fill it up again with 2 truck loads.

Jeff jumps in the dumpster and tampers down the stuff we unload to make room for the weekly garbage of Ken, Rebecca, their daughter Megan, and us.


Of course we still take care of the Palm House even though it is not open. The mice still leave their little mouse poop and sand piles and the surfaces get dusty.

Outside the Palm House and behind our RV, we rake up fallen fronds.